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R = \frac{\sum_{hkl} \sum_{j} \vert I_{hkl,j}-\langle I_{hkl}\rangle\vert}{\sum_{hkl} \sum_{j}I_{hkl,j}} | R = \frac{\sum_{hkl} \sum_{j} \vert I_{hkl,j}-\langle I_{hkl}\rangle\vert}{\sum_{hkl} \sum_{j}I_{hkl,j}} | ||

</math> | </math> | ||

where <math>\langle I_{hkl}\rangle</math> is the average of symmetry- (or Friedel-) related observations of a unique reflection. | where <math>\langle I_{hkl}\rangle</math> is the average of symmetry- (or Friedel-) related observations of a unique reflection. The formula is due to Arndt, U.W., Crowther, R.A. & Mallet, J.F.W. A computer-linked cathode ray tube microdensitometer for X-ray crystallography. J. Phys. E:Sci. Instr. 1, 510−516 (1968). Any unique reflection with n=2 or more observations enters the sums. | ||

It can be shown that this formula results in higher R-factors when the redundancy is higher (Diederichs and Karplus <ref name="DiKa97">K. Diederichs and P.A. Karplus (1997). Improved R-factors for diffraction data analysis in macromolecular crystallography. Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 269-275 [http://strucbio.biologie.uni-konstanz.de/strucbio/files/nsb-1997.pdf]</ref>). In other words, low-redundancy datasets appear better than high-redundancy ones, which obviously violates the intention of having an indicator of data quality! | It can be shown that this formula results in higher R-factors when the redundancy is higher (Diederichs and Karplus <ref name="DiKa97">K. Diederichs and P.A. Karplus (1997). Improved R-factors for diffraction data analysis in macromolecular crystallography. Nature Struct. Biol. 4, 269-275 [http://strucbio.biologie.uni-konstanz.de/strucbio/files/nsb-1997.pdf]</ref>). In other words, low-redundancy datasets appear better than high-redundancy ones, which obviously violates the intention of having an indicator of data quality! |

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